Аббревиатуры

AA

Always Afloat

AAAA

Always
Accessible Always Afloat

AAOSA

Always Afloat
or Safe Aground. Condition for a vessel whilst in port

AARA

Amsterdam-Antwerp-Rotterdam
Area

ABAFT

Toward the rear
(stern) of the ship. Behind.

ABOARD

On or within
the ship

ABOVE DECK

On the deck
(not over it - see ALOFT)

ABT

About

ADCOM

Address
Commission

ADDENDUM

Additional
chartering terms at the end of a charter party

AFSPS

Arrival First
Sea Pilot Station (Norway)

AFFREIGHTMENT

The hiring of a
ship in whole or part

AFT

At or towards
the stern or rear of a ship

AGROUND

Touching or
fast to the bottom

AGW

All Going Well

AHL

Australian Hold
Ladders

AIDS TO
NAVIGATION

Artificial
objects to supplement natural landmarks indicating safe and unsafe
waters

ALOFT

Above the deck
of the ship

AMIDSHIPS

In or toward
the centre of the ship

A/N

Arrival Notice
- an import document send to the notify party and/or importer's
broker containing all necessary arrival info for Customs
clearance; normally with freight charges.

ANCHORAGE

A place
suitable for anchorage in relation to the wind, seas and bottom

ANTHAM

Antwerp-Hamburg
Range

APS

Arrival Pilot
Station

ARAG

Amsterdam-Rotterdam--Antwerp-Gent
Range

ARBITRATION

Method of
settling disputes which is usually binding on parties. A clause
usually in a charter party

A/S

Alongside

ASBA

American
Shipbrokers Association

ASN

Advance
Shipment Notice

ASPW

Any Safe Port
in the World

ASTERN

In the back of
the ship, opposite of ahead

ATA

Actual time of
arrival

ATD

Actual time of
departure

ATDNSHINC

Any Time
Day/Night Sundays and Holidays Included

ATHWARTSHIPS

At right angles
to the centreline of the ship

ATUTC

Actual Times
Used to Count

AWB

Air waybill

BACKLETTER

Where a
seller/shipper issues a 'letter of indemnity' in favour of the
carrier in exchange for a clean bill of lading

BAF

Bunker
Adjustment Factor. A Fuel Surcharge expressed as a percentage
added or subtracted from the freight amount, reflecting the
movement in the market place price for bunkers.

BALE CAP.

Cubic capacity
of a vessels holds to carry packaged dry cargo such as
bales/pallets

BALLAST

Heavy weight,
often sea water, necessary for the stability and safety of a ship
which is not carrying cargo

BALLAST
BONUS

Compensation
for relatively long ballast voyage

BAREBOAT
CHTR
.

Bareboat
Charter - Owners lease a specific ship and control its technical
management and commercial operations only. Charterers take over
all responsibility for the operation of the vessel and expenses
for the duration.

BBB

Before Breaking
Bulk. Refers to freight payments that must be received before
discharge of a vessel commences

BDI

Both Dates
Inclusive

BEAM

The maximum
breadth or the greatest width of a ship

BELOW

Beneath the
deck

BENDS

Both Ends (Load
& Discharge Ports)

BI

Both Inclusive

BIMCO

The Baltic and
International Maritime Council

BL

Bale

B/L

(Bill of
Lading) A document signed by the carrier which acts as a Contract
of Affreightment, a receipt and evidence of title to the cargo.

BM

Beam

BN

Booking Note

BOB

Bunker on Board

BOFFER

Best Offer

BOW

The forward
part of a ship

BROB

Bunkers
Remaining on Board

BROKERAGE

Percentage of
freight payable to broker (by owners in c/p's) or applicable to
sale or purchase

BSS

Basis

BSS 1/1

Basis 1 Port to
1 Port

BT

Berth Terms

BULKHEAD

A vertical
partition separating compartments

BUNDLING

This is the
assembly of pieces of cargo, secured into one manageable unit.
This is relevant to items such as Structural Steel, Handrails,
Stairways etc. Whilst this is a very flexible description, a rule
of thumb is to present cargo at a size easily handled by a large
(20 tonne) fork lift.

BUNKERS

Name given for
vessels Fuel and Diesel Oil supplies (Originates from coal
bunkers)

BUOY

An anchored
float used for marking a position on the water or a hazard or a
shoal and for mooring

BWAD

Brackish Water
Arrival Draft

CAF

Currency
Adjustment Factor. A fee applied to the shipping costs to
compensate for exchange rate fluctuations.

CBM

Cubic Metres

CBFT (or
CFT)

Cubic Feet

CFR (or C&F)

Cost and
Freight

CHART

A map used by
navigators

CHOPT

Charterers
Option

CHTRS

Charterers

CIF

Cost, Insurance
& Freight. Seller pays all these costs to a nominated port or
place of discharge.

CKD

Completely
knocked down

COA

Contract of
Affreightment - Owners agree to accept a cost per revenue tonne
for cargo carried on a specific number of voyages.

CIP

Carriage and
Insurance paid to...

C.O.

Certificate of
Origin - a signed statement from a semiofficial organization
certifying the origin of an export item, required by certain
nations.

COACP

Contract of
Affreightment Charter Party

COB

Closing of
Business

COBLDN

Closing of
Business London

COD

Cash On
Delivery

COGSA

Carriage of
Goods by Sea Act

CONGESTION

Port/berth
delays

CONS

Consumption

CNEE
CONSIGNEE
.

Name of agent,
company or person receiving consignment

COP

Custom Of Port

CP (or C/P)

Charter Party

CPD

Charterers Pay
Dues

CPT

Carriage Paid
To

CQD

Customary Quick
Despatch

CR

Current Rate

CROB

Cargo Remaining
on Board

CRN

Crane

CRT

Cargo Retention
Clauses, introduced by charterers based on shortage of delivered
cargo because of increased oil prices

CST

Centistoke

CTR

Container
Fitted

DA

Disbursement
Account

DAF

Deliver At
Frontier

DAPS

Days all
Purposes (Total days for loading & discharging)

DAMFORDET

Damages for
Detention. Penalty if cargo is not ready when ship arrives for
working (1st day of Laycan). This is not detention which is
charged for ships time on delay. If the cargo is ready there is no
DAMFORDET.

DDU

Delivered Duty
unpaid.

DDP

Delivered Duty
Paid.

DECK

A permanent
covering over a compartment, hull or any part thereof

DEM

Demurrage (Quay
Rent). Money paid by the shipper for the occupying port space
beyond a specified "Free Time" period.

DEQ

Delivered Ex
Quay

DES

Delivered Ex
Ship

DESP

Despatch. Time
saved, reward for quick turnaround- in dry cargo only

DET

Detention (See
DAMFORDET)

DEV

Deviation.
Vessel departure from specified voyage course

DFRT

Deadfreight.
Space booked by shipper or charterer on a vessel but not used

DHDATSBE

Despatch Half
Demurrage on All Time Saved Both Ends

DHDWTSBE

Despatch Half
Demurrage on Working Time Saved Both Ends

DISCH

Discharge

DK

Deck

DLOSP

Dropping Last
Outwards Sea Pilot (Norway)

DO

Diesel Oil

DOLSP

Dropping Off
Last Sea Pilot (Norway)

DOP

Dropping
Outward Pilot

DOT

Department of
Transport

DNRCAOSLONL

Discountless
and Non-Returnable Cargo and/or Ship Lost or Not Lost

DRAUGHT (or
DRAFT)

Depth to which
a ship is immersed in water. The depth varies according to the
design of the ship and will be greater or lesser depending not
only on the weight of the ship and everything on board, but also
on the density of the water in which the ship is lying.

DRK

Derrick

DUNNAGE

Materials of
various types, often timber or matting, placed among the cargo for
separation, and hence protection from damage, for ventilation and,
in the case of certain cargoes, to provide space in which the
tynes of a fork lift truck may be inserted.

DWAT (or
DWT)

Deadweight.
Weight of cargo, stores and water, i.e. the difference between
lightship and loaded displacement.

EBB

A receeding
current

EC

East Coast

EIU

Even If Used

ELVENT

Electric
Ventilation

ETA

Estimated Time
of Arrival - the projected date and time a shipment is scheduled
to arrive at its destination.

ETC

Estimated Time
of Completion

ETD

Estimated Time
of Departure - the projected date and time a shipment is scheduled
to depart from the port/airport of origin.

ETS

Estimated Time
of Sailing

EXW

Ex Works

FAC

Fast as can

FAS

Free Alongside
Ship. Seller delivers goods to appropriate dock or terminal at
port of embarkation and buyer covers costs and risks of loading

FCA

Free to
Carrier. A modern equivalent of FAS used in intermodal transport
where goods are transferred at a nominated forwarders premises,
depot or terminal but not actually on board vessel.

FCL

Full Container
Load - a container that is fully loaded by cargo, occupying all
space, or loaded to the maximum permissable weight. It can contain
cargo from multiple shippers, but normally is consigned to the
same consignee. The shipment is expected to be delivered to the
consignee with the shipper's seal intact.

FD (FDIS)

Free Discharge

FDD

Freight
Demurrage Deadfreight

FDESP

Free Despatch

FDEDANRSAOCLONL

Freight Deemed
Earned, Discountless And Non-Returnable (Refundable) Ship And Or
Cargo Lost Or Not Lost

FENDER

A cushion,
placed between ships, or between a ship and a pier, to prevent
damage

FEU

Standard 40’
Container, forty-foot equivalent unit, a standard size intermodal
container.

FHEX

Fridays/Holidays
Excluded

FHINC

Fridays/Holidays
Included

FILO

Free In/Liner
Out. Seafreight with which the shipper pays load costs and the
carrier pays for discharge costs.

FIO

Free In/Out.
Freight booked FIO includes the seafreight, but no
loading/discharging costs, i.e. the charterer pays for cost of
loading/discharging cargo.

FIOS

Free In/Out
Stowed. As per FIO, but excludes stowage costs.

FIOST

Free In/Out and
Trimmed. Charterer pays for cost of loading/discharging cargo,
including stowage and trimming.

FIOT

Free In/Out and
Trimmed. As per FIOS but includes trimming, e.g. the levelling of
bulk cargoes. FIOS includes seafreight, but excludes
loading/discharging and stowage costs.

FIT

Free In Trimmed

FIW

Free In Wagon

FIXING

Chartering a
Vessel

FIXTURE

Conclusion of
shipbrokers negotiations to charter a ship - an agreement

FLATPACKING

Cargo to be
presented stacked and secured as an integral unit.

FLT

Full Liner
Terms

FMC

Federal
Maritime Commission

FME

Force Majeure
Excepted

FMS

Fathoms

FO

For Orders

FO (IFO)

Fuel
Oil/Intermediate FO

FO

Free Out

FOB

Free on Board.
Seller sees the goods "over the ship’s rail" on to the
ship which is arranged and paid for by the buyer

FOFFER

Firm Offer

FOG

For Our
Guidance

FOQ

Free On Quay

FOR

Free On Rail

FORCE
MAJEURE

Clause limiting
responsibilities of the charterers, shippers and receivers of
cargo.

FORE-AND-AFT

In a line
parallel to the keel

FORWARD

Toward the bow
of the ship

FOT

Free On Truck

FOW

First Open
Water

FOW

Free On Wharf

FP

Free Pratique.
Clearance by the Health Authorities

FR

First Refusal.
First attempt at best offer that can be matched

FREEBOARD

The minimum
vertical distance from the surface of the water to the gunwale

FRT

Freight. Money
payable on delivery of cargo in a mercantile condition

FREE
DESPATCH

If
loading/discharging achieved sooner than agreed, there will be no
freight money returned.

FREE EXINS

Free of any
Extra Insurance (Owners)

FREE OUT

Free of
discharge costs to owners. Includes seafreight only.

FRUSTRATION

Charterers when
cancelling agreement sometimes quote 'doctrine of frustration'
i.e. vessel is lost, extensive delays.

FWAD

Fresh Water
Arrival Draft

FWDD

Fresh Water
Departure Draft

FYG

For Your
Guidance

FYI

For Your
Information

GA

General Average

GEAR

A general term
for ropes, blocks, tackle and other equipment

GLS (GLESS)

Gearless

GNCN

Gencon (GENERAL
CONDITIONS)

GN (or GR)

Grain
(Capacity)

GO

Gas Oil

GP

Grain Capacity.
Cubic capacity in 'grain'

GR

Geographical
Rotation. Ports in order of calling

GRD

Geared

GRI

General Rate
Increase. Used to describe an across-the-board tariff rate
increase implemented by conference members and applied to base
rates.

GRT

Gross
Registered Tonnage

GSB

Good, Safe
Berth

GSP

Good, Safe Port

GTEE

Guarantee

GUNWALE

The upper edge
of a ship's sides

2H

Second Half

HA

Hatch

HAGUE RULES

Code of minimum
conditions for the carriage of cargo under a Bill of Lading

HATCH

An opening in a
ship's deck fitted with a watertight cover

HBF

Harmless Bulk
Fertilizer

HDLTSBENDS

Half Despatch
Lay Time Saved Both Ends

HDWTS

Half Despatch
Working (or Weather) Time Saved

HHDW

Handy Heavy
d.w. (Scrap)

HIRE

T/C
Remuneration

HMS

Heavy Metal
Scraps

HO

Hold

HOLD

A compartment
below deck in a large vessel, used solely for carrying cargo

HULL

The main body
of a ship

HW

High Water

ICW

Intercoastal
Waterway : bays, rivers, and canals along the coasts (such as the
Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts), connected so that vessels may
travel without going into the sea

IMDG

International
Maritime Dangerous Goods Code

IMO

International
Maritime Organisation

IN &/OR
OVER

Goods carried
below and/or on deck

INCOTERMS

(Refer to
comments in covering statement on front page A-F)

IND

Indication

INTERMODAL

Carriage of a
commodity by different modes of transport, i.e. sea, road, rail
and air within a single journey

ITF

International
Transport Workers Federation (Trade Unions). Complies on crewing

ISPS

International
Ships and Port Security System

ITINERARY

Route.Schedule

IU

If Used

IUHTAUTC

If Used, Half
Time Actually To Count

IWL

Institute
Warranty Limits

KEEL

The centreline
of a ship running fore and aft; the backbone of a vessel

KNOT

A measurement
of speed equal to one nautical mile (6,076 feet) per hour

LANE METER

A method of
measuring the space capacity of Ro/Ro ships whereby each unit of
space (Linear Meter) is represented by an area of deck 1.0 meter
in length x 2.0 meters in width.

LASH

To hold goods
in position by use of Ropes, Wires, Chains or Straps etc.

LAT

Latitude. The
distance north or south of the equator measured and expressed in
degrees.

LAYCAN

Laycan (Layday
Cancelling Date)

LAYTIME

Time at
Charterers disposal for purpose of loading/discharging

L/C

Letter of
Credit

LCL

Less than
Container Load - a shipment that takes up only a portion of a
consolidated container. LCL shpts are to be picked up at a CFS
only, whereas FCL are to be picked up at a container
yard/terminal.

LCR

Lowest Current
Rate

LEE

The side
sheltered from the wind

LEEWARD

The direction
away from the wind. Opposite of windward

LEEWAY

The sideways
movement of the ship caused by either wind or current

LF

Load Factor.
Percentage of cargo or passengers carries e.g. 4,000 tons carried
on a vessel of 10,000 capacity has a load factor of 40%

LIEN

Retention of
property until outstanding debt is paid

LNG

Liquefied
Natural Gas

LOA

Length Overall
of the vessel

LOAD LINE

See PLIMSOLL
LINE

LOF

Lloyds Open
Form

LOG

A record of
courses or operation. Also, a device to measure speed

LOI

Letter of
Indemnity

LONGITUDE

The distance in
degrees east or west of the meridian at Greenwich, England

LOW

Last Open Water

LS (or
LUMPS)

Lumpsum
Freight. Money paid to Shipper for a charter of a ship (or
portion) up to stated limit irrespective of quantity of cargo

LSD

Lashed Secured
Dunnaged

LT

Liner Terms

LT

Long Ton =
1,016.05 kilogram (2,240 lbs)

LTHH

Liner Terms
Hook/Hook

LW

Low Water

LYCN

Laycan (Layday
Cancelling Date)

MANIFEST

Inventory of
cargo on board

MB

Merchant Broker

MDO (DO)

Marine Diesel
Oil

MIDSHIP

Approximately
in the location equally distant from the bow and stern

MIN/MAX

Minimum/Maximum
(cargo quantity)

MOA

Memorandum of
Agreement

MOLCHOPT

More or Less
Charterers Option

MOLOO

More or Less
Owners Option

MOORING

An arrangement
for securing a ship to a mooring buoy or pier

MT

Mertic Tonne
(i.e. 1,000 kilos)

M/V

Motor Vessel /
Merchant Vessel

NAABSA

Not Always
Afloat But Safely Aground

NM

Nautical Mile.
One minute of latitude; approximately 6,076 feet - about 1/8
longer than the statute mile of 5,280 feet

NAVIGATION

The art and
science of conducting a ship safely from one point to another

NCB

National Cargo
Bureau

NESTING

Implies that
cargo is presented stacked in the contour of similarly shaped
cargo, it may be likened to a stack of plates. This is
particularly relevant in the presentation of tankage strakes for
transport

NON-REVERSIBLE

(Detention). If
loading completed sooner than expected, then saved days will not
be added to discharge time allowed.

NOR

Notice of
Readiness

NRT

Net Restricted
Tonnage

NYPE

New York
Produce Exchange

OO

Owners Option

OBO

Ore/Bulk/Oil
Vessel

OSH

Open Shelter
Deck

OVERBOARD

Over the side
or out of the ship

OWS

Owners

P&I

Protection and
Indemnity Insurance

PASTUS

Past Us

PC

Period of
Charter

PCGO

Part Cargo

PCT

Percent

PDPR

Per Day Pro
Rata

PERDIEM

By the Day

PER
SE

By Itself

PHPD

Per Hatch Per
Day

PLIMSOLL
MARK
alt.

 

PLIMSOLL
LINE alt.

 

LOAD LINE

An
internationally recognised line painted on the side of merchant
ships. When a ship is loaded, the water level is not supposed to
go above the line. Water can reach different parts of the line as
its temperature and saltiness varies with the season and location.
From where Plimsoll Shipping derived its name.

PORT

The left side
of a ship looking forward. A harbour.

PRATIQUE

Licence or
permission to use a port

PREAMBLE

Introduction to
a charter party

PROFORMA

Estimated
Account

PUS

Plus Us

PWWD

Per Weather
Working Day

RCVR

Receiver

RECAP

Recapitulation
of the terms and conditions agreed

REVERSIBLE

(Detention). If
loading completed sooner than expected at load port, then days
saved can be added to discharge operations.

ROB

Remaining On
Board

RT

Revenue Tonne
(i.e. 1.0 metric tonne or 1.0 cubic meter, whichever greater). The
overall RT is calculated on a line by line basis of the Packing
List using the largest amount. The overall freight liability is
calculated on the total RT amount, multiplied by the freight rate.

SATPM

Saturday P.M.

SB

Safe Berth

SD
(or SID)

Single Decker

SEAFREIGHT

Costs charged
for transporting goods over the sea. This does not cover haulage
or loading/discharging costs but the sea transport only

SEAWORTHINESS

Statement of
condition of the vessel (valid certificates, fully equipped and
manned etc.)

SELFD

Self
Discharging

SEMI-TRAILERS

Are usually
12.0 meter flat bed road trailers

SF

Stowage Factor.
Cubic space (measurement tonne) occupied by one tonne (2,240
lbs/1,000 kgs) of cargo

SHINC

Sundays/Holidays
Included

SHEX

Sundays/Holidays
Excluded

SHPR

Shipper - the
party in whose name a contract of carriage of goods has been
concluded with at carrier or any party by whom, in whose name or
on whose behalf the goods are actually delivered to the carrier in
relation to the contract of carriage.

SKIDS

Are bearers
(timber or steel) positioned under the cargo to enable forklift
handling at port, and for ease of rigging and lashing on board
ship.

SN

Satellite
Navigation - A form of position finding using radio transmissions
from satellites with sophisticated on-board automatic equipment

SOC

Shipper Owned
Container

SOF

Statement of
Facts

SP

Safe Port

SPIDERING

Is the
strengthening of circular tanks for transport, this prevents the
tanks from becoming warped. The tanks are strengthened with steel
or wood crossbeams giving a "spider" appearance

SRBL

Signing and
Releasing Bill of Lading

SSHEX

Saturdays,
Sundays, Holidays Excluded

SSHINC (or
SATSHINC)

Saturdays,
Sundays, Holidays Included

STABILITY

It is paramount
that a vessel is stable in all aspects at all times. When cargo is
loaded/discharged, the stability is monitored by a computer, which
takes into account the weight and position of cargo within the
vessel.

STARBOARD

Right side of a
ship when facing the front or forward end.

STEM

Subject to
Enough Merchandise (Availability of cargo). Also, the forward most
part of the bow.

STERN

The aformost or
after part of a ship

SUB

Subject (to).
Depending upon as a condition

SUPERCARGO

Person employed
by a ship owner, shipping company, charterer of a ship or shipper
of goods to supervise cargo handling operations. Often called a
port captain.

SWAD

Salt Water
Arrival Draft

SWDD

Salt Water
Departure Draft

THWARTSHIPS

At right angles
to the centreline of the ship

TIDE

The periodic
rise and fall of water level in the oceans

TIME BAR

Time after
which legal claims will not be entered

TBN

To Be Named /
To Be Nominated

TC

Time Charter -
Owners agree to hire a particular ship for a set length of time
and provide technical management, crewing etc.

TCP

Time Charter
Party

TEU

Standard 20'
Container, twenty-foot equivalent unit, a standard size intermodal
container.

TOPSIDES

The sides of a
ship between the waterline and the deck; sometimes referring to
onto or above the deck

T/S

Transhipment -
a shipping arrangement in which a shipment is discharged of the
vessel at an intermediate port enroute and subsequently reloaded
to another vessel for carriage to its final destinationl

TRIM

Fore and aft
balance of a ship

TTL

Total

TW

Tween Decker

USC

Unless Sooner
Commenced

UU

Unless Used

UUIWCTAUTC

Unless Used In
Which Case Time Actually Used To Count

VPD

Vessel Pays
Dues

WATERLINE

A line painted
on a hull which shows the point to which a ship sinks when it is
properly trimmed

WAY

Movement of a
ship through water such as headway, sternway or leeway

WCCON

Whether Customs
Cleared Or Not

WIBON

Whether In
Berth Or Not

WIFPON

Whether In Free
Pratique Or Not

WINDWARD

Toward the
direction from which the wind is coming

WIPON

Whether In Port
Or Not

WLTOHC

Water
Line-To-Hatch Coaming

WOG

Without
Guarantee

WP

Weather
Permitting. That time during which weather prevents working shall
not count as laytime

WPD

Weather
Permitting Day

WWD

Weather Working
Day

WRIC

Wire Rods In
Collis

WWR

When, Where
Ready

WWWW

Wibon, Wccon,
Wifpon, Wipon

YAR

York Antwerp
Rules

YAW

To swing or
steer off course, as when running with a quartering sea

Z

UTC = GMT